Il potenziamento delle funzioni cognitive nei percorsi di Alternanza Scuola Lavoro e nodi critici
In Italy the L. 107/2015, the Reform of the National Education and Training System with powers in the reorganization of the existing laws, plans to school-work pathways for all secondary schools (ASL). Previously, according to the Legislative Decree 77/2005, the alternate routes were only present for some higher education pathways, or only on the basis of specific funding from the Ministry of Education. Today, the target of the ASL courses is, as stated in the L. 107, to increase job opportunities and career management skills of the students, therefore already in the statutory provision, is highlighting a focus that goes beyond the subject content to insist metacognitive and professional goals in order. How to achieve this target and how to monitor ongoing achievement? Above all, how to design ASL paths that meet the legislative requirement that seems to refer to higher-order cognitive skills? Recent studies (Diamond, 2013) have linked cognitive abilities of higher order to activation of Executive Functions (FE). In particularly inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility seem to be the ones most involved in allowing the enhancement of cognitive processes needed to implement a responsible behavior in the face of a new and challenging situation, as it could be entering in the work world for a young student. The Alternating School Work activities can therefore be designed and conducted as cognitive enhancement activities? Have the school and the companies, currently, got the resources to respond to this request?